The tragic story of the chemist best known as Fritz Haber’s wife might not be as clear cut as many believe, finds Bárbara Pinho

In 1901, the German Electrochemical Society held its annual conference in Freiburg with a significant difference – for the first time ever, a female scientist sat in the room. Her name was Clara Immerwahr, the first woman to hold a doctorate degree from the University of Breslau. The event turned out to be the place where Immerwahr started to settle her scientific path. It was also where she met someone who, according to some, would soon threaten her career: her future husband and future Nobel laureate, Fritz Haber.

克拉拉·莱姆瓦尔(Clara Immerwahr)出生于1870 in a small province close to Breslau(now Wrocław in Poland). During the second half of the 19th century, Breslau became a centre for science, culture and business, and its Jewish community was the third largest in Germany. The Immerwahr family belonged to the Jewish middle class, wealthy yet humble in their lifestyles and manners. Immerwahr’s father was a PhD chemist who worked as an agronomist and co-owned a store in Breslau. Amid values such as modesty and simplicity, the Immerwahrs valued education for all, both boys and girls. But the German educational system wouldn’t make things easy for Clara Immerwahr.

‘令人印象深刻的是,她愿意并且能够将这条艰难的道路带入由男性科学家,学者主导的领域。她必须克服的障碍是巨大的,本质上是难以想象的,令人难以置信的羞辱。弗里德里希(Friedrich)从事分子物理学工作,但他和他的同事迪特·霍夫曼(Dieter Hoffmann文章,文件and书籍章节about Clara Immerwahr.

What Fritz has gained during these last eight years, I have lost

由于不允许Immerwahr上德国高中,因此她参加了Breslau的一所女大学的HöhereTöchterschule。学校将“为年轻女性提供与她们的社会地位兼容的年轻女性的基础教育,并为她们的“自然目的”做好准备;弗里德里希(Friedrich)在他的一篇论文中写道,也就是作为丈夫,家庭主妇和母亲的同伴。即使这不是沉浸式的愿望(她想成为像父亲一样的科学家),但选择还是很少的。为了补充她的教育,她在夏季有一位私人导师,并于1892年毕业,享年22岁。之后,她进入了老师的神学院,不是理想的选择,而是被迫被迫的选择。同样,这是唯一向女性提供更高专业教育的机构。但是,即使有这样的学位,上级也没有资格就读大学。为了获得高等教育研究,她必须参加私人课程并进行特别考试。1896年,她通过了它,并终于被接纳了布雷斯劳大学。尽管如此,她的机会比男同龄人的机会更具限制。

Women were not then legally admitted as university students in Prussia; they could only attend lectures as guests. Even this option was difficult because women needed permission from faculty professors and administrators. Nevertheless, Immerwahr took it. She was accepted and eventually found a professor who helped her boost her scientific career. His name wasRichard Abegg.

‘She was fortunate to have come across someone who was very supportive of her and paid very little heed to the various restrictions that he was supposed to operate under at the time,’ Friedrich says. ’Abegg later became her confidante and some of the critical things that we know about her marriage, we know thanks to the letters they exchanged.’

She was a reliable partner in the laboratory, conscientious and competent, who did research that mattered at the time

Abegg was a chemist and lecturer at the Chemistry Institute of the University of Breslau. He became Immerwahr’s supervisor after sparking her interest in physical chemistry, then a relatively new field and one he relished. In particular, her work would focus on solutions chemistry, revolving around ‘connections among solubility, degree of dissociation, ion concentration, osmotic pressure, and electrochemical potential,’ Friedrich wrote in another paper. She performed experimental investigations of the elements cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc and of their salts to expand an empirical base to assess the elements’ electroaffinity. She published three papers, an erratum and a supplement covering this topic. ‘This field is pretty old hat now. The work she was doing does not seem to have contributed to the conceptual framework of physical chemistry. It did not start any new directions of research,’ Friedrich says. ‘But she was apparently a reliable partner in the laboratory, conscientious and competent, who did research that mattered at the time when she was doing it.’

最终,经过一段阻碍的旅程,Immerwahr捍卫了她关于1900年12月重金属盐的溶解的博士学位论文,成为布雷斯劳大学第一位这样做的女性。第二年,她参加了德国电化学协会在弗莱堡举行的年度会议,在那里她团聚Fritz Haber,一位既定的德国化学家。

Some speculate Haber and Immerwahr had already met in a dancing class in 1885 and so the conference in 1901 may have been a reigniting of their relationship. They got married later that same year.MargitSzöllösi-Janze, the biographer of Haber and Immerwahr, described this wedding as the end of Immerwahr’s science career and for valid reason: after marrying Haber, she would never again conduct research of her own.

但Immerwahr肯定尝试。她不能去back to the lab, but she conducted public lectures about the chemistry and physics of the household in Karlsruhe, where the couple lived. The couple had no substantial wealth back then, so household chores occupied most of her time. She was still confident that the scenario would change one day and that she would return to the lab. In a letter she sent to Abegg, Immerwahr wrote, ‘once we become millionaires and will be able to afford servants […], I cannot even think about giving up my [scientific work].’ Unfortunately, with the birth of their only child in 1902 and Haber’s heavy focus on his burgeoning career, Immerwahr’s dream of going back to making science kept moving further away. She wrote to Abegg later on, in 1909: ‘What Fritz has gained during these last eight years, I have lost, and what’s left of me, fills me with the deepest dissatisfaction.’

People have created an irresistible image of Clara that was most probably not true

Not long after, the first world war began. As a proud German citizen, Fritz Haber moved to support the German army, becoming a consultant to the Ministry of War and leaving his family many times during the conflict. In1915在他的指导下,德国军方对伊普尔的盟军发射了168吨以上的氯气。成功的攻击将为哈伯提供晋升,并在他的家乡举行庆祝聚会。庆祝活动结束后不久,在他们家的花园里,克拉拉(Clara Immerwahr)将哈伯(Haber)的枪靠在胸前。她拉了扳机,夺走了自己的生命。他们的儿子找到了身体。

The sad ending of Immerwahr’s life has inspired manydocumentaries,图书andfilmsabout her. Across all of them, there’s the message that Immerwahr killed herself because she was a pacifist who was incapable of coping with the idea of her husband using science to commit mass murder. After reviewing all the available letters and documents from Immerwahr’s life, however, Friedrich and Hoffmann found no evidence to back such claims.

‘我认为人们相信[Immerwahr]生活,工作和遗产的扭曲和捏造的记载,因为这是他们所熟悉的。弗里德里希(Friedrich)认为,扭曲和捏造通过众多戏剧进行了很多宣传。他还提到,围绕这些主张的亲和平,反战和女权主义话语产生了“克拉拉的不可抗拒的形象”,这很可能是不正确的。弗里德里希(Friedrich)和霍夫曼(Hoffmann)认为,她的自杀可能是由于她对生活的深刻不满,以及阿贝格(Abegg)和她最好的朋友的最近去世。

克拉拉·莱姆瓦尔(Clara Immerwahr)出生于a time when finding a seat in academic auditoriums was nearly impossible for women. After much perseverance, she still found her place, only to lose it later on to the path her personal life would take. When asked whether Immerwahr’s life would have been different had she not gotten married, Friedrich admits he does not know. ‘One can look around and consider, for instance, the case of Lise Meitner. They [Immerwahr and Meitner] were members of the same circle in Berlin. The fact of the matter is that Lise Meitner never married. And I think some scholars are of the opinion that this was one of the enabling factors for her scientific career, that she was able to be 100% dedicated to her work in the lab.’

We may never understand the reason behind Immerwahr’s suicide and what scientific discoveries she could have made had she had the chance to conduct her own research. Despite the many uncertainties around Immerwahr’s life, there’s still one clear fact. She earned her PhD with an incredible effort, and neither marriage nor suicide can erase that.

Bárbara Pinho is a science writer based in Porto, Portugal