妮娜·诺特曼(Nina Notman)讲述了两次世界战工业化学家的故事,他的分析技巧和持久性看到了她的性别歧视,并证明了她的研究能力

In the early 1920s, things were slowing starting to open up for women’s education in science. ‘Women’s colleges – such as Royal Holloway College and Bedford College in London, Somerville College, Oxford and Newnham College, Cambridge – were crucial in establishing a route by which women could get a chemistry education,’ explains chemistry historian Geoff Rayner-Canham from Memorial University in Canada.

但重大社会障碍阻碍了任何草地duate who then wanted to use her education in the chemical industry. In the period running up to the first world war – and even more so during it – scientific roles were becoming more accessible to women. But the barriers went back up again after the war. ‘There was this big slump in women chemists,’ says Geoff Rayner-Canham.

假设是女性没有天生的能力进行原始研究

“关于原因有很多不同的理论,”美国费城科学历史研究所的丽贝卡·卡普兰(Rebecca Kaplan)说。从19世纪中叶到第一次世界大战的进展是由于妇女选举权运动为自己的投票权而战。但是,一旦同意投票权,平等的推动突然停止了。卡普兰解释说,该运动“没有共同的目标”,对传统性别角色的期望也回来了。这是一种全球现象。对于欧洲的妇女,还有其他问题是,她们从科学生涯中驱逐出来,以使从战es中返回的男性为空间腾出空间。

确实可以使用工业实验室的妇女几乎总是被分配常规任务,而男性的工作监督。杰夫·雷纳·卡纳姆(Geoff Rayner-Canham)解释说:“当时的假设是,遗传上女性没有天生的作品能力。”

只是一个初始——people assumed the applicant was male – was common

Kathleen Culhane (known as Kay) was one of the few British women chemists of this era who successfully navigated these barriers, establishing herself as a highly respected researcher. She went on to develop analytical techniques vital for both the pharmaceutical and food industries.

但是Culhane最初并不是一名化学家。1918年,当她在皇家霍洛威学院(Royal Holloway College)入学时,它进入了植物学课程。在这里,她对化学的兴趣蓬勃发展,她改用课程以获得化学荣誉学位毕业。

Deciding she wanted an industrial research career, Culhane started applying for posts. ‘Kay obtained some interviews by signing her application letter “K” rather than Kathleen,’ her daughter Rosalind Bramley wrote in a1991 article inChemistry in Britain。她的性别被揭露后,她被拒绝担任所有这些角色。“当时人们认为[申请人]是男性是男性的,所以不仅仅是一个名字,因此,当时是一件常见的事情。”

为了支付账单,Culhane教授并指导化学学生。在业余时间,她在现在的皇家伦敦医院的糖尿病诊所中免费进行例行紧急血糖确定。约翰·马拉克(John Marrack)领导该实验室,他在皇家化学研究所(Royal Chemist)(皇家化学学会的前身)会面后邀请Culhane加入他的团队。必威手机登陆这项工作是医学科学的最前沿,胰岛素仅在1923年4月在英国提供作为糖尿病治疗的胰岛素(见一百年的胰岛素)。

经过两年的工作不成功,Culhane终于与Neocellon(漆器和搪瓷制造商Neocellon)获得了研究。在这里,她帮助开发了耐用的彩色搪瓷,用于充满气体的电灯泡。申请这项工作时,一次实际上是为了库尔哈恩(Culhane)的支持而工作。“老实说,该公司承认无法付钱给一个男人,并给了她120英镑的P.A.。”Chemistry in Britain文章。

我期望我做所有无聊的例行工作,而任何有趣的人都分发给了其中一位男人

马拉克很快以每年265英镑的薪水诱使Culhane回到医院(相当于今天约47,000英镑)。她回到了血液检查,还是她部门的一般化学顾问。然后,马拉克(Marrack)与一个朋友提出了恩宠,以确保Culhane在英国药房(BDH)的生理部门中担任角色。这是一家大型制药公司,是英国胰岛素的主要制造商。起初,Culhane认为她在这里的任命意味着她为确立自己的研究生涯的努力终于结束了。

But this wasn’t the case, as a later talk about her career revealed. ‘I gradually discovered that it was not the intention to employ me as a chemist but as a woman chemist … I was expected to do all the boring, routine jobs … while anything interesting was handed out to one of the men.’ She also noted other differences in the way she was treated. ‘The male graduate … is paid a reasonable salary, however young. If his university qualifications are good, he is usually given quite a dignified position from the beginning. The girl who worked side-by-side with him at university is hard up and constantly humiliated [and must work her way up from the bottom rung].’

Culhane的作用是在制造过程中在各个阶段对胰岛素进行质量检查。当时胰岛素的化学成分知之甚少,因此她使用了一种生物学测定 - 监测用胰岛素注入的兔子的血糖。

Still determined to conduct original research, Culhane did so after hours. She rapidly found success and was granted permission to publish over a dozen papers during her time at BDH. As her publications mounted up, her reputation outside of the UK grew. In 1928, Culhane took part in a tour arranged by the Society of Chemical Industry to US and Canadian chemical societies. That same year she also joined the League of Nations health organisation committee.

与委员会一起,她参加了晶体和无定形胰岛素的生物活性之间的比较。四名委员会成员对样本进行了独立测定,Culhane获得了与男性同龄人的发现。她被要求撤回她的结果,但拒绝了 - 后来她的结果被证明是准确的。“凯收到了[委员会成员之一]的私人祝贺信,但没有公开撤回。”Chemistry in Britain文章。

Culhane conducted original research after hours, publishing over a dozen papers. In 1928, she joined the League of Nations health organisation committee. With the committee, she participated in a comparison between the biological activity of crystalline and amorphous insulin. Samples were assayed independently by the four committee members, with Culhane obtaining findings that didn’t match those of her male peers. She was asked to withdraw her results but refused – and her results were later proven to be accurate. ‘Kay received a private congratulatory letter from [one of the committee members], but no public retraction,’ explained Bramley in herChemistry in Britain文章。

Culhane developed improved biological assays for vitamins and gave a lecture in Manchester on the need to standardise the process of adding vitamins to foods. Scurvy, rickets and other diseases caused by vitamin deficiencies were common at that time and it was starting to be realised that processed food was being stripped of nutrients during manufacturing.

Her inexperienced male successor began on a salary of £100 more than she had finished on!

曼彻斯特报纸的一名记者参加了演讲Daily Dispatch。他形容Culhane是“科学的女孩吹笛者……一个漂亮的女孩,有着蓝眼睛和发发的头发”,对她是“一家著名的英国药品公司研究部门的负责任官员”,这真是令人难以置信。尚不清楚库尔哈恩(Culhane)如何回应这一事件,但布拉姆利(Bramley)在1991年写道,她母亲与另一位报纸记者的往来。布拉姆利说:“她被问到她是否认为女性在科学研究中是否像男性一样出色。”Curt的回应是,她看不到“一个人作为化学家的资格在任何受到性事故影响下的资格”。

1933年7月,库尔哈恩(Culhane)与乔治·拉斯伯里(George Lathbury)结婚。当时,预计妇女结婚后会停止工作。由于她的研究的重要性,她被允许扮演自己的角色,但对此感到愤怒。一旦结婚,她继续被邀请加入委员会,以发表维生素分析和标准化工作,并在皇家化学研究所获得奖学金。然而,在1936年,她怀有布拉姆利(Bramley)时离开了BDH。布拉姆利在她的文章中写道:“她没有经验的男性继任者的薪水比她完成的100英镑!”

在1939年第二次世界大战开始时,莱斯伯雷(Lathbury)着手寻找一种为战争努力做出贡献的方法。但是,尽管经常公开指出行业缺乏科学家,但没有任何职位向女性开放。坚持不懈的拉斯伯里被任命为军械工厂统计质量控制部门的负责人。她在其他军械工厂的男性同行获得了两倍以上的薪水,并被允许在伦敦参加会议时旅行 - 莱斯伯里(Lathbury)上三年级。然而,她的能力并没有引起注意,她于1942年成为皇家统计协会的院士。

战争结束后,莱斯伯雷从科学退休,将自己扔进了汉普郡的乡村生活。在后来的生活中,她开始绘画,并为当地,伦敦和巴黎的展览做出了贡献。她甚至在白金汉宫附近的洛吉亚画廊(Loggia Gallery)享有一个独奏展览,享年78岁。“凯……以她曾经彻底解决任何问题的唯一方式解决了艺术,”她的女儿解释说。

莱斯伯里(Lathbury)逝世93岁。她的故事值得听到,不仅是因为她的研究成功,而且因为她的动力和毅力使她成功了,而她这个时代的许多女性没有:为她在工业领域的科学卓越而获得认可和认可化学设置。她没有为此而获得公平薪水真是可惜!然而,据布拉姆利(Bramley),她的母亲并没有为她在男人世界中的女科学家的经历而感到沮丧。她写道:“她只是与令人难以置信的娱乐故事有关,讲述了努力努力的困难和侮辱。”

Nina Notman是位于英国索尔兹伯里的科学作家